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users - How do daemons work? - Unix & Linux Stack Exchange


Saved by uncleflo on January 4th, 2019.

If a user wants to execute a command, he has to first log in into a system. But some users in the system have /bin/false or /sbin/nologin set as a default shell in the /etc/password file. If I change /bin/bash to /bin/false in case of my user, I won't be able to log in into the system, so I also won't be able to run commands. But the shellless users do it anyway: How can a user without a shell execute a command? In POSIX, every running process has three User IDs (UIDs) associated with it; the real UID, which identifies the user who launched the process, the effective UID, which is used to determine what resources the process can access, and the saved Set-User-ID (SUID), which is the effective UID the process had when it started (at the point of the last exec() call). Of these, the effective UID is the most significant, since it is the one used when determining access control decisions regarding the process.

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Installing a SSL certificate on Apache


Saved by uncleflo on December 19th, 2018.

Before you start the SSL installation process, please make sure that the CSR code is generated, all validation requirements are met, and the SSL certificate is issued and downloaded. The next prerequisites are intended to ease SSL installation and help you avoid the common pitfalls: Having access to the hosting server configuration over SSH via the terminal; The website should be working over the HTTP connection (default port 80); The private key should be located and matched with the SSL certificate. Check this article to find the private key and match it with the SSL certificate using this tool. As you may know, there are many Linux distributions where an Apache HTTP server can be installed. In this article, we will review SSL installation steps for two major operating system families: Debian-based and RHEL-based ones.

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Which characters need to be escaped in Bash? How do we know it?


Saved by uncleflo on February 7th, 2018.

Is there any comprehensive list of characters that need to be escaped in Bash? Can it be checked just with sed? In particular, I was checking whether % needs to be escaped or not. I tried this and worked fine, without escaping %. Does it mean % does not need to be escaped? Was this a good way to check the necessity? And more general: are they the same characters to escape in shell and bash?

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Undoing Changes - git


Saved by uncleflo on April 12th, 2017.

git checkout, git revert, git reset, git clean. This tutorial provides all of the necessary skills to work with previous revisions of a software project. First, it shows you how to explore old commits, then it explains the difference between reverting public commits in the project history vs. resetting unpublished changes on your local machine.

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How to Read a File Line by Line in a Shell Script


Saved by uncleflo on January 27th, 2017.

There are many ways to handle any task on a Unix platform, but some techniques that are used to process a file waste a lot of CPU time. Most of the wasted time is spent in unnecessary variable assignment and continuously opening and closing the same file over and over. Using a pipe also has a negative impact on the timing. In this article I will explain various techniques for parsing a file line by line. Some techniques are very fast and some make you wait for half a day. The techniques used in this article are measurable, and I tested each technique with time command so that you can see which techniques suits your needs.

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AWK - Built-in Functions


Saved by uncleflo on January 27th, 2017.

AWK has a number of functions built into it that are always available to the programmer. This chapter describes Arithmetic, String, Time, Bit manipulation, and other miscellaneous functions with suitable examples.

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Heiner's SHELLdorado


Saved by uncleflo on November 3rd, 2016.

SHELLdorado - your UNIX shell scripting resource

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Shell Scripting Tutorial - Quick Reference


Saved by uncleflo on October 28th, 2016.

A Bourne Shell Programming / Scripting Tutorial for learning about using the Unix shell. Learn Linux / Unix shell scripting by example along with the theory. I'll have you mastering Unix shell scripting in no time.

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Advanced Bash-Scripting Guide


Saved by uncleflo on October 28th, 2016.

This tutorial assumes no previous knowledge of scripting or programming, yet progresses rapidly toward an intermediate/advanced level of instruction... all the while sneaking in little nuggets of UNIX® wisdom and lore. It serves as a textbook, a manual for self-study, and as a reference and source of knowledge on shell scripting techniques. The exercises and heavily-commented examples invite active reader participation, under the premise that the only way to really learn scripting is to write scripts. This book is suitable for classroom use as a general introduction to programming concepts. This document is herewith granted to the Public Domain. No copyright!

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Bash Guide for Beginners


Saved by uncleflo on October 28th, 2016.

The primary reason for writing this document is that a lot of readers feel the existing HOWTO to be too short and incomplete, while the Bash Scripting guide is too much of a reference work. There is nothing in between these two extremes. I also wrote this guide on the general principal that not enough free basic courses are available, though they should be. This is a practical guide which, while not always being too serious, tries to give real-life instead of theoretical examples. I partly wrote it because I don't get excited with stripped down and over-simplified examples written by people who know what they are talking about, showing some really cool Bash feature so much out of its context that you cannot ever use it in practical circumstances. You can read that sort of stuff after finishing this book, which contains exercises and examples that will help you survive in the real world. From my experience as UNIX/Linux user, system administrator and trainer, I know that people can have years of daily interaction with their systems, without having the slightest knowledge of task automation. Thus they often think that UNIX is not userfriendly, and even worse, they get the impression that it is slow and old-fashioned. This problem is another one that can be remedied by this guide.

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Wget: Resume Broken Download


Saved by uncleflo on July 23rd, 2016.

The GNU Wget is a free utility for non-interactive download of files from the Web. It supports HTTP, HTTPS, and FTP protocols, as well as retrieval through HTTP proxies. Recently, I was downloading a Ubuntu Linux ISO (618 MB) file for testing purpose at my home PC. My Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS) unit was not working. I started downloading.

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Make ISO Images on Linux | kvz.io


Saved by uncleflo on March 11th, 2016.

CDs and DVDs don't have the eternal life, so you might want to back them up as ISO images. All the files and properties of the original disc, stored in a single file. You can also create ISO images and store them on your network for easy distribution of software installations. Here's how to create and mount ISO images on Linux.

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Saved by uncleflo on September 15th, 2013.

A shell script is a sequence of commands for which you have a repeated use. This sequence is typically executed by entering the name of the script on the command line. Alternatively, you can use scripts to automate tasks using the cron facility. Another use for scripts is in the UNIX boot and shutdown procedure, where operation of daemons and services are defined in init scripts. To create a shell script, open a new empty file in your editor. Any text editor will do: vim, emacs, gedit, dtpad et cetera are all valid. You might want to chose a more advanced editor like vim or emacs, however, because these can be configured to recognize shell and Bash syntax and can be a great help in preventing those errors that beginners frequently make, such as forgetting brackets and semi-colons.

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dd - writing zeros - general question


Saved by uncleflo on August 23rd, 2013.

Can't figure out why using dd to write zeros to a hard drive is so slow. Yesterday, I prepped a hard drive for a friend and did the standard command: dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sda The machine I used has a Core 2 Duo 2.4 Ghz cpu, 2 Gigs of DDR2 800 RAM, a new Intel mobo, and a Western Digital 250 gig. SATA drive with 16 meg. cache. The result was 30,482 seconds (approx. 8.5 hrs.) to write zeros to the entire 500 Gig. drive, at an average rate of 16.4 MB/sec.

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What Is My IP Address? - ifconfig.me


Saved by uncleflo on August 23rd, 2013.

Website about your connection and how your pc is seen from the outside.

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Saved by uncleflo on August 19th, 2013.

I do a lot of work with subdomains, managing them locally on my development and test machines has always been a bit of a pain. Going way back, I can remember manually editing the hosts file in system32\drivers\etc\ on Windows! On the Unix we have /etc/hosts. Unfortunately /etc/hosts doesn’t allow wildcard definitions for subdomains, so you have to manually specify each one.

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HowTo: Linux List Disk Partitions Command


Saved by uncleflo on July 15th, 2013.

How do I list all hard disk partitions under Linux operating systems? Usually, your hard disk drive divided into one or more logical disks called partitions. This division is described in the partition table found in sector 0 of the hard disk.

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An A-Z Index of the Bash command line for Linux | SS64.com


Saved by uncleflo on July 4th, 2013.

An A-Z Index of the Bash command line for Linux.

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Change the Keyboard Layout for CentOS / Scientific Linux | Linhost.info


Saved by uncleflo on June 30th, 2013.

Yes, for some reason one of my VMs was configured with a different keyboard layout. The solution is quite simple all you have to do is edit /etc/sysconfig/keyboard with your favorite editor to make the keyboard layout US friendly. I am using VI as an example you can use whatever text editor you prefer.

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User Management


Saved by uncleflo on June 20th, 2013.

This section is reserved for documentation and information about various operating systems. Items that belong here pertain to the operating system software and associated programs and issues. At the suggestions of members or the public, more additions may be made here. A list of current and possible operating systems

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Linux user management through command line and GUI (Real world Linux)


Saved by uncleflo on June 20th, 2013.

In one of the earlier articles at this blog (here), we learned the Linux user login management. The article explained how user login and password are managed in Linux. Continuing on the same lines. In this article, we will learn how users are managed in Linux. This article will try to cover basics of Linux user management through command line tools as well as through GUI.

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How to Stream Your Webcam: 8 Steps - wikiHow


Saved by uncleflo on May 17th, 2013.

Your webcam isn't only good for video chatting one-on-one. You can also share your home or office with the world, using open-source software on Windows, Linux, or Macintosh computers. Here's one way to go about it.

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How to use Dropbox as a git repository


Saved by uncleflo on May 9th, 2013.

Dropbox is a free file synchronization/backup service where you can backup, save and share files. One of the best things is, that you can use it as git remote server. Here is an example on how to do it. To start, open a shell/terminal window and go to your project directory.

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Ubuntu Linux Start / Restart / Stop Apache Web Server


Saved by uncleflo on May 7th, 2013.

How do I start, restart or stop Apache 2 web server under Ubuntu Linux operating systems? /etc/init.d/apache2 is service script used to start / stop / restart the Apache2 service under Debian or Ubuntu Linux. You need to login as root or use sudo command restart Apache.

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Can't change destination of symbolic link


Saved by uncleflo on May 5th, 2013.

I want to change the destination of an existing symbolic link, without removing the link or the old destination. I have previously created a symbolic link to a directory such as follows. Now I want to change this, to link to the other directory

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