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Saved by uncleflo on January 18th, 2019.
The waterfall model is a relatively linear sequential design approach for certain areas of engineering design. In software development, it tends to be among the less iterative and flexible approaches, as progress flows in largely one direction ("downwards" like a waterfall) through the phases of conception, initiation, analysis, design, construction, testing, deployment and maintenance. The waterfall development model originated in the manufacturing and construction industries; where the highly structured physical environments meant that design changes became prohibitively expensive much sooner in the development process. When first adopted for software development, there were no recognized alternatives for knowledge-based creative work.
waterfall iterative incremental phase linear revise agile code structure verify conflict documentation software acknowledge initiation specification model test discrete modify howto methodology system design approach development method administration administrator supervisor business workflow
Saved by uncleflo on January 4th, 2019.
If a user wants to execute a command, he has to first log in into a system. But some users in the system have /bin/false or /sbin/nologin set as a default shell in the /etc/password file. If I change /bin/bash to /bin/false in case of my user, I won't be able to log in into the system, so I also won't be able to run commands. But the shellless users do it anyway: How can a user without a shell execute a command? In POSIX, every running process has three User IDs (UIDs) associated with it; the real UID, which identifies the user who launched the process, the effective UID, which is used to determine what resources the process can access, and the saved Set-User-ID (SUID), which is the effective UID the process had when it started (at the point of the last exec() call). Of these, the effective UID is the most significant, since it is the one used when determining access control decisions regarding the process.
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